Acupuncture Meridian System

The Theory of traditional Chinese meridians of acupuncture mentions that on the surface and inside the body there is a network of channels called meridians through which the vital energy chi or qi flows.There are twelve paired main channels or meridians and two central unpaired channels. There are also six extra-ordinary channels or meridians but they are not commonly used for diagnosis or treatment.

Twelve paired channels are-six in the upper extremities or arms and six in the lower extremities or legs. Out of these six paired meridians in the arms, three are yin and three are yang meridians. In the same way, in the legs also there are three yin and three yang meridians. In the arms the three yin meridians are called lung (L), pericardium (P), and heart (H) meridians from thumb side to the tittle finger side. They are located on the palmar surface of the arm. On the dorsal or posterior surface of the arm there are three yang meridians. Exactly opposite to lung meridian on the thumb side is the large intestine (LI) meridian. In the center is located triple warmer (TW) or Sanjiao (SJ) meridian which is exactly opposite to the pericardium meridian, and similarly exactly opposite to the heart meridian on the little finger side on the dorsum of the hand is the location for small intestine (SI) meridian.

On the inner side of the leg and thigh there are three yin meridians. They are spleen (Sp), liver (Liv) and kidney (K) meridians. Spleen is on the frontal aspect of inner side, liver in the middle while the kidney meridian is located on the back part of the inner side of the leg. On the front and outer aspect of the leg and thigh three yang meridians are located, out of which stomach meridian is on the front and first on the outer aspect in order. It corresponds to the spleen meridian on inner aspect. Behind the stomach (St) is gall bladder (GB) meridian. It is located in relation to fibula bone and corresponds to the liver meridian of inner aspect. The third one is urinary bladder (UB) meridian which runs on the middle of the back of the thigh and leg.

There are two different channels or meridians through which energy flows. There are two central unpaired channels or meridians. In the midline on the front side is conceptional vessels (CV) meridian also called as Ren meridian which is a yin meridian and on the backside just along the vertebral column in the center is the unpaired meridian called governing vessels meridian (GV) or Du meridian.

Each meridian starts from or ends into a particular internal organ and runs on the surface and makes a complete inner and outer circle to maintain the flow of energy through the particular channel. For instance the lung channel originates from lung and comes on the surface at chest wall and runs on the arm till the tip of the thumb and becomes internal route to get conception with the internal organ and completes the circle. There is also internal connection between the two channels to maintain the energy flow. The yin and yang channels of the same level on the arm or leg have this type of connection and are called ‘coupled or paired channels’.

Thus:

  • Lung (L) and large intestine (LI)
  • Pericardium (P) and triple warmer (TW)
  • Heart (H) and small intestine (SI)
  • Spleen (Sp) and stomach (St)
  • Liver (Liv) and gall bladder (GB)
  • Kidney (K) and urinary bladder (UB)

are coupled or paired meridians.

Unit of Measurement Used in Acupuncture

Unit of the measuring system used by an acupuncturist is t-sun or cun and it is expressed as a ‘unit’ in proportion to the patient’s body itself. One t-sun is defined as the distance between the palmar creases over the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the middle finger of the patient. Breadth of the thumb at its interphalangeal joint is also considered as one t-sun, The combined breadth of the index and middle or the ring and little fingers is 1.5 t-sun. The combined breadth of the four fingers held adjoining is 3 t-sun, the measurement being taken at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the little finger. One Fen is equal to 0.1 t-sun and eight t-suns make one Fu. Because t-sun, Fen and Fu are the terms used in relation to the patient’s own body, the acupuncturist must first compare his t-sun against the patient’s and make proper adjustments in measurements before localizing the points on the patient’s body.

T-Sun Measurement Unit in Acupuncture

List of Acupuncture Meridians

Acupuncture Gall Bladder Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description gall bladder meridian of acupuncture is a yang channel associated with the element wood and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the liver meridian.

Total number of points: 44.

Starting point: Lateral canthus of the eye.

Terminal point: Tip of the fourth toe.

Pathway: This channel originates at the lateral canthus and divided into two branches: (i) anterior branch and (ii) posterior branch.

Anterior branch: It has no point in its course and is not considered a useful branch.

Posterior branch: It ascends to the corner of the forehead and then curves downwards to reach behind the ear. It then runs along the lateral aspect of neck and finally goes to the supraclavicular area where it divides into two branches-inner branch and superficial branch.

Inner branch: This branch goes to the liver and gall bladder and emerges at the inguinal area. It joins superficial branch at the hip joint.

Superficial branch: From supraclavicular fossa, this branch courses downwards in front of the axilla and then along the lateral aspect of the chest, passes through the free ends of the eleventh ribs to the hip region where it connects with the inner branch.
After union of the inner branch and the superficial branch the main meridian descends along the lateral aspect of the thigh and knee, antero-lateral aspect of the leg and dorsum of the foot and reaches the fourth toe where it terminates on the lateral side of its tip.

Therapeutic Indications

  1.  All the disorders along the pathway of the channel.
  2. Points on the face are used for eye and ear disorders, facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia and pain in the neck.
  3.  Points on the chest are used for lactation disorders.
  4.  Points on the abdomen are used for the liver and gall bladder disorders.
  5.  Points of the lower extremity are used for the treatment of sciatica, paralysis, poliomyelitis, and arthritis of the knee and ankle.
  6.  Points below knee are used as distal points for the treatment of proximal disorders.

Description of Selected Points

GB-1 Tongziliao

Location: 0.5 t-sun lateral to the lateral canthus of the eye.

Indications: Keratitis, conjunctivitis, headache, facial paralysis, migraine (of the same side), trigeminal neuralgia.

GB-2 Tinghui

Location: Depression in front of the inferior notch of the tragus or on the posterior margin of the condyloid process of the mandible.

Indications: Deafness, tinnitus, otitis media, trigeminal neuralgia, upper toothache, arthritis of the temporomandibular joint, facial paralysis.

 

     G8-1 (TongziJiao) G8-2 (Tinghui)

 

GB-8 Shuaigu (Shuai ku)

Location: Directly above the apex of the auricle, 1.5 t-sun above the natural hairline. To mark the apex auricle should be folded upon itself vertically.

Indications: Migraine, parietal headache, forgetfulness, vertigo, dizziness, all ear disorders and psychosomatic disorders.

GB-14 Yangbai (Yang bai) 

              GB·14 (Yangbai).

Location: On the forehead 1 t-sun vertically above the midpoint of the eyebrow.

Indications: Bell’s palsy, headache (frontal), frontal sinusitis, trigeminal neuralgia, night blindness, glaucoma.

 

GB-20 Fengchi (Feng Chih)

Location: At the apex of the posterior triangle of the neck, in the hollow directly below and between the external occipital protuberance and the mastoid process. It lies between the insertions of the trapezius and Sterno-cliedo-mastoid muscles.

Indications: Stiff neck, cervical spondylosis and all other painful disorders of the occipital region. Headache, common cold, vertigo, tinnitus, influenza. Hypertension. Meningitis.

GB-21 Jianjing (Chien ching)

Location: Highest point of the shoulder [it is located midway between GV-14 (Dazhui) and acromion].

Indications: Frozen shoulder, backache, stiffness of the neck, cervical spondylosis, motor disorders of’ the upper extremity, menstrual disorders of the endocrine origin, functional uterine bleeding, hyperthyroidism, mastitis.

 

 GB -20 {Fengchci) GB-21 (Jianjing)

 

GB-26 Daimai

                 GB-26 (Daimai)

Location: On the abdominal wall, midway between the free ends of the eleventh and twelfth rib at the level of the umblicus.

Indications: Menstrual disorders like dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia and metorrhagia, endometritis, cystitis, lumbago, cholecystitis, hepatitis and intercostal neuralgia.

 

GB-30 Huantiao

         GB -30 (Huantiao)

 

Location : At the junction of the outer one-third and the middle two-thirds of a line drawn between the high point of the great trochanter and sacral hiatus.

Indications: Prolapsed intervertebral disc, acute sciatica, paralysis of the lower extremities, poliomyelitis, arthritis of the hip joint.

 

GB-34 Yanglingquan (Yang ling chuan)

Location : On the antero-lateral aspect of the leg in the depression in front and below the head of the fibula.

Indications : Hemiplegia, poliomyelitis, tenosynovitis, myopathies and muscular dystrophies, mental disorders, diseases of the knee joint, foot drop, diseases of gall bladder. lumbago. hyperacidity, vertigo, labyrinthitis and dizziness.

GB-37, Guangming (Kuangming)

Location: 2 t-sun below GB-35 (Yangjiao) in front of the fibula.

Indications: Eye diseases, sciatica and pain of the lateral side of the leg, migraine, headache.

 

      GB-34 (Yanglingquan)                 GB-37 (Guangming).

GB-40 Qiuxu (Chiu hsu)

Location: In the depression anterior and inferior to the lateral malleolus .

Indications: Axillary lymphadenitis, costalgia, cholecystitis, sciatica, arthritis of the ankle joint, foot drop, varicose and other chronic ulcers of the ankle, pain in the chest, painful conditions of the hip.

GB-41 Foot-linqi (Tsulingchi)

Location: In the depression anterior to the fourth interrmetatarsal joint (function of the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones of the foot)

Indications: Conjunctivitis, metatarsalgia, costalgia, mastitis, lymphadenitis, to stop the milk secretion, deafness and tinnitus.

GB -40 (Qiuxu). GB-41 (Foot-Linqui).

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Acupuncture Triple Warmer Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description triple warmer median of acupuncture is a yang channel associated with the element fire and possesses inferior and exterior relationship with the pericardium meridian.

The term triple warmer indicates three burning cavities of the body namely, chest, abdomen and pelvis, controlling respiration, digestion and urogenital functions, respectively. Because of their location, chest is known as the upper warmer, abdomen as the middle warmer and pelvis as the lower warmer. In the Chinese texts, triple warmer is termed as the Sanjiao channel (Sanjiao means “three burning spaces”).

Total number of points: 23

Starting point: Corner of the nail of ring finger on the ulnar side. Terminal point: Lateral end of the eyebrow.

Pathway: It originates from the medial corner of the nail of the ring finger, passes on the dorsum of the hand between fourth and fifth metacarpal bones and crosses the dorsum of the wrist and inferior radioulnar joints to take the position between radius and ulna on the dorsum of the forearm. It ascends to the olecranon and along the posterior aspect of the upper arm to the shoulder joint where it enters the neck to reach the superaclavicular fossa and divides into two branches :

(i) Cervical branch and (ii) Inner branch.

Cervical branch: It runs superficially to the neck, along the posterior border of the ear, turns downwards to the cheek and terminates in the infraorbital region.

Inner branch: This branch descends through the diaphragm and goes to the abdomen and pelvis.

Therapeutic Indications

  1. All disorders along the pathway of the meridian.
  2. Diseases of the ear, i.e. tinnitus, vertigo, labyrinthitis, deafness (because one of its branches goes to the ear).
  3. Gastrointestinal disorders like constipation and diarrhea (due to its homeostatic effect).
  4. Diseases of the eye (because the meridian passes close to the eye).
  5. Painful shoulder and back.
  6. Heart and mental disorders.

Description of Selected Points

TW-2 Yemen

Location: 0.5 t-sun above the margin of the fourth web (between the little and ring fingers).

Indications: Deafness, malaria, spastic fingers, pain in hand and arm, headache.

TW-2 Yemen

TW-4 Yangchi (Yangchih)

Location: On the dorsal wrist crease medial to the tendon of the extensor digitorum communis muscle.

This point is just distal to the extensor retinaculum. Indications: Arthritis of the wrist drop, malaria.

TW-4 Yangchi

TW-5 Waiguan (Waikuan)

Location: On the dorsal aspect of the forearm, 2 t-sun proximal to the dorsal transverse wrist crease between the two bones of the forearm.

Indications: Pain and paralysis of the upper extremity, arthritis of the small joints of hand and fingers, wrist drop, writer’s cramps, neck pain, headache, deafness, fever, optic atrophy.

TW-5 Waiguan

TW-6 Zhigou (Chihkou)

Location: 1 t-sun above TW-5 (Waiguan)

TW-6 Zhigou and TW-8 Sanyangluo

Indications: Constipation, paralysis of the upper extremities.

TW-8 Sanyangluo (Sanyanglo)

Location : 2 t-sun proximal to TW-5 (Waiguan) midway between the radius and the ulna.

Indications : Pain and paralysis of the upper extremities, deafness, aphasia, herpes zoster, intercostal neuralgia.

TW-17 Yifeng

Location: Behind the lobule of the ear in the depression between the mastoid process and the angle of the mandible.

Indications: All disorders of the ear like deafness, tinnitus aurium, otitis media. Facial nerve paralysis. Parotitis. Trigeminal neuralgia.

TW-17 Yifeng

TW-21 Ermen (Erhmen)

Location: In the depression in front of the superior notch of the tragus when the mouth is open.

TW-21 Ermen and TW-23 Sizhukong

Indications: Deafness, tinnitus, labyrinthitis, vertigo, trismus, otitis media and otitis externa, arthritis of the temporomandibular joint.

TW-23 Sizhukong (Ssuchukung)

Location: Lateral end of the eyebrow.

Indications : Frontal sinusitis, migraine, frontal and temporal headache, diseases of the eye.

 

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Acupuncture Pericardium Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description acupuncture pericardium meridian is a yin channel associated with the element fire and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the triple warmer meridian.

Total number of points: 9.

Starting point: 1 t-sun lateral to the nipple.

Terminal point: Tip of the middle finger.

Description of Selected Points

P-6 Neiguan (Neikuan)

Location: 2 t-sun above the distal transverse wrist crease between the tendons of the flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus muscles (Fig. 7.60).

Indications: Thoracodynia and costalgia. Paralysis, poliomyelitis, muscular wasting and myopathies. Brachial neuralgia and carpal tunnel syndrome. Gastralgia, gastritis, hiccup, hiatus hernia, anorexia, nausea, emesis. Palpitation, angina pectoris Hysteria, epilepsy anxiety. Asthma.

P-6 Neiguan

P-7 Daling (Taling)

Location: Midpoint of the distal transverse wrist crease, between the tendons of the flexor carpiradialis and palmaris longus muscle.

Indications: Myocarditis, intercostal neuralgia, tonsilitis, mental disorders, carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis of the wrist joint, paralysis, epilepsy and insomnia.

P-7 Daling

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Acupuncture Kidney Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description kidney meridian of acupuncture is a yin channel associated with the element water and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the urinary bladder meridian.

Total number of points: 27.

Starting point: At the junction of anterior one-third and posterior two- thirds of the sole in the hollow between second and third metatarsophalangeal joints.

Terminal point: Infraclavicular region.

Pathway: After taking origin from the inferior aspect of the little toe, it enters the sole, passes behind the medial malleolus and ascends on the leg to reach medial side of the popliteal fossa. It reaches pelvis after coursing over the postero-medial aspect of the thigh where it divides into two branches :

Inner branch: Leads to the principle organ kidney and communicates with urinary bladder. It courses upwards internally to end at the route of the tongue.

Superficial branch: It ascends to the abdomen and chest, and ends at the infraclavicular region 2 t-sun lateral to the midline.

Therapeutic Indications

  1. Disorders along the pathway of the channel.
  2. Genit-urinary disorders like cystitis, nephritis, impotence, spermatorrhoea, and menstruation disorders.
  3. Alopecia.
  4. All ear disorders (kidney opens to the ear).
  5. Disorders of the bones.
  6. Pulmonary disorders can be treated by using this channel because lung represents metal and water is the son of metal. Water being the element of the channel provides it the therapeutic properties of treating lung disorders.
  7. Water destroys fire hence the disorders of heart, brain and small intestine can be treated by using kidney channel.
  8. Diseases of liver and gall bladder can be treated by this channel because wood is the son of water.

Indications mentioned above give a classic example of application of the doctrine of five elements in the selection of the points.

Description of Selected Points

K-1 Yongquan (Yungchuan)

Location: In the hollow of the sole at the junction of its anterior one- third and posterior two-thirds in the depressions between the second and third metatarsophalangeal joints.

Indications : It is used as a powerful and effective jing-well point during emergencies. Unconsciousness, epilepsy, infantile convulsions, severe nausea and vomitting, dysurea. Plantar fascitis, arthritis of small joints of foot, foot drop.

K-1 Yongquan

K-3 Taixi (Tai hsi)

Location: Midway between the tip of medial malleolus and tendo-achilles, just opposite UB-60 (Kunlun).

Indications: Cystitis, nephritis, enuresis, urinary incontinence, spermatorrhoea, impotence, spasmodic dysmenorrhoea. Paralysis of the lower extremities, foot drop. Plantar fascitis, arthritis of the ankle joint, calcaneal spur, sprains of the ankle joint and foot.

K-3 Taixi

K-4 Oazhong (Tachung)

Location: Postero-inferior to K-3 (Taixi) in front of the calcaneus.

K-4 Oazhong and K-7 Fuliu

Indications: Hysteria, hepatitis, asthma, constipation, plantar fascitis, calcaneal spur, dysuresis.

K-7 Fuliu

Location: 2 t-sun above K-3 (Taixi).

Indications: Hyperhydrosis, nephritis, orchitis, night sweating.

K-16 Huangshu

Location: 0.5 t-sun lateral to the umbilicus.

K-16 Huangshu and K-27 Shufu

Indications: Abdominal pain, jaundice, hepatitis, menstrual disturbances, hernia, constipation.

K-27 Shufu

Location: In the hollow between the lower border of the clavicle and the first rib, 2 t-sun lateral to the midline.

Indications: Thoracalgia. cough, bronchitis, asthma, emesis.

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Acupuncture Urinary Bladder Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description urinary bladder meridian is a yang channel associated with the element water and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the kidney meridian.

Total number of points: 67.

Starting point: Medial canthus of the eye.

Terminal point: Lateral side of the tip of the little toe.

Pathway: This is the longest channel. It starts from the medial canthus of the eye, runs over the forehead and head close to the midline. At vertex it connects with the governing vessels channel. At this level a small branch splits off and goes to the ear (this branch has no point) while the main branch goes to the occiput and at the nape of the neck, 0.5 t-sun above the natural hairline [UB-10 (Tianzhu)] it divides into the medial and lateral branches. These two branches descend down up to the back of the popliteal fossa where they unite in the center to form a single branch again. The single main branch runs down on the back of the leg and lateral border of the foot and ends at the lateral aspect of the tip of the little toe.

Branches

Medial branch: This branch runs on the back of the trunk 1.5 t-sun lateral to the midline. It descends down up to the fourth sacral foramen, makes a Z-turn to reach back to the first dorsal sacral foramen and then again descends down over the buttock, hip joint, back of thigh to reach the popliteal fossa where it meets the lateral branch. At the level of the lower border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra [UB-23 (Shenshu)] an inner branch goes to the kidney and urinary bladder.

Lateral branch: This branch runs parallel to the medial branch 3 t-sun lateral to the midline on the back of the trunk. It courses over the buttock and back of the thigh and joins the medial branch on the back of the popliteal fossa at the level of UB-40 (Weizhong)

Description of Selected Points

UB-1 Jingming (Chingming)

Location: On the margin of the orbit 0.1 t-sun above the medial canthus.

Indications: Conjunctivitis, myopia hypermetropia, optic atrophy, visual defects, blindness and facial paralysis.

UB-1 Jingming

UB-2 Zangzhu (Tsanchu)

Location : At the inner end of the eyebrow directly above the inner canthus of the eye.

Indications: Frontal headache, frontal sinusitis, trigeminal neuralgia, blurring of the vision, epiphora, diseases of the eye and nose.

UB-2 Zangzhu

UB-10 Tianzhu (Tienchu)

Location: On the lateral side of the trapezius muscle, 0.5 t-sun above the natural hairline, 0.3 t-sun lateral to the midline between the first and second cervical vertebrae.

UB-10 Tianzhu and UB-11 Dashu

Indications: Hysteria, epilepsy, schizophrenia, neurasthenia, insomnia, occipital headache, stiffness of the neck and disorders of the eye.

UB-11 Dashu (Tachu)

Location : On the back, 1.5 t-sun lateral to the tip of the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra.

Indications : Bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, pleurisy, neck pain, backache, shoulder pain, tuberculosis of the bone, arthritis and numbness of limbs.

UB-17 Geshu (Keshu)

UB-17 Geshu

Location : On the back, 1.5 t-sun lateral to the tip of the spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra, at the level with the inferior angle of the scapula.

Indications: Hiccup, paralysis of the diaphragm, eventration of the diaphragm, anorexia nervosa, neurotic vomiting, anaemia, blood dyscrasias, haemorrhagic disorders and allergic rashes.

UB-23 Shenshu

Location : On the back of the abdomen, 1.5 t-sun lateral to the tip of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra.

UB-23 Shenshu and UB-25 Dachangshu

Indications: Lumbago, nocturnal pollutions, impotence, irregular menstruation, chronic pelvic cellulitis, nephritis, neurasthenia and genital disorders.

UB-25 Dachangshu (Tachangshu)

Location: On the back of abdomen, 1.5 t-sun lateral to the tip of the spinous process of the 4th lumbar vertebra.

Indications: Enteritis, dysentery, constipation, lumbago, sciatica, paralysis of the lower extremities.

UB-27 Xiaochangshu (Hsiaochangshu)

Location : On the back of abdomen, 1.5 t-sun lateral to the midline at the level of sacroiliac joint.

UB-27 Xiaochangshu and UB-32 Ciliao

Indications: Sciatica, lumbago, nocturnal pollution, urinary incontinence, pelvic peritonitis.

UB-32 Ciliao (Tzuliao)

Location : On the second posterior sacral foramen midway between the lower part of the posterior superior iliac spine and the posterior midline.

Indications: Urogenital disorders, menstrual disorders, haemorrhoids, lumbago and sciatica.

UB-37 Yinmen

Location : 6 t-sun below UB36 (Chengfu) in the centre of the back of the thigh.

Indications: Low backache, poliomyelitis, sciatica and paralysis.

UB-37 Yinmen

UB-39 Weiyang (Shentang)

Location: On the lateral end of the popliteal crease, medial to the tendon of the biceps femoris muscle.

Indications: Cramps of the calf muscles, low backache, paralysis of the lower extremities.

UB-39 Weiyang

UB-40 Weizhong (Weichung)

Location: Midpoint of the popliteal fossa.

Indications : Low back pain, sciatica, lumbago, paralysis of the extremities, poliomyelitis, genito urinary disorders, menstrual disorders, impotence, arthritis of knee joints.

UB-40 Weizhong

UB-57 Chengshan

Location: On the calf, where the two bellies of the gastrocnemius unite, midway between UB-40 (Weizhong) and the heel (upper border of the calcaneum).

Indications: Sciatica, paralysis of the leg, leg cramps, plantar fascitis, poliomyelitis, frontal headache, prolapsed rectum.

UB-57 Chengshan

UB-60 Kunlun

Location : Central point of the groove between the tendoachilis and posterior border of the lateral malleolus of the fibula, at the level of its tip.

Indications: Poliomyelitis, paralysis of the lower extremity, foot drop, sciatica, low backache, calcaneal spur, painful disorders of the ankle joint and soft tissue around it, retained placenta.

UB-60 Kunlun

UB-62 Shenmai (Shenimo)

Location: On the outer aspect of the ankle, 0.5 t-sun below the tip of the lateral malleolus.

Indications: Painful disorders of the ankle joint, low backache, paralysis of the leg, foot drop, headache, epilepsy, apoplexy, psychological disturbances, insomnia.

UB-62 Shenmai and UB-67 Zhiyin

UB-67 Zhiyin (Chihyin)

Location: 0.1 t-sun behind and lateral to the corner of the nail of the little toe.

Indications : All acute emergencies, difficult labour, malposition of the foetus.

 

 

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Acupuncture Liver Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description it is a yin channel associated with the element wood and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the gall bladder meridian.

Total number of points: 14.

Starting point: Dorsum of the big toe.

Terminal point: Sixth intercostal space, below the nipple.

Pathway: This channel originates from the lateral side of the great toe, ascends over the dorsum of the foot and reaches in front of the medial malleolus. In its course on the medial side of the leg it meets the spleen and kidney meridian at the point  Sp-6 (Sanjiao) and then ascends upwards along the medial side of the knee and thigh, curves around external genitalia in the pubic region and reaches the lower abdomen, where it divides into two branches: (i) superficial branch and (ii) inner branch.

Superficial branch: From the level of the symphysis pubis this branch turns upwards, reaches the free end of the eleventh rib and ends in the sixth intercostal space where it meets the inner, branch.

Inner branch: It goes to the abdomen, encircles the stomach and then enters the pertaining organ, liver. Here it communicates with the gall bladder and then passes further upwards to the diaphragm and ascends along the posterior aspect of the throat to the nasopharynx and connect; with the eye and brain. It again becomes superficial in its course, leads to the forehead and meets the governing vessel meridian. A small branch goes to the mouth but it has no point.

Therapeutic Indications

  1.  All the disorders along the pathway of the channel.
  2.  Diseases of the liver and gall bladder.
  3.  Eye disorders.
  4.  Disorders of the spleen.
  5.  Convulsion and headache.

Description of Selected Points

Liv-2 Xingjian (Hsiangchien)

Location: On the dorsum of the foot 0.5 t-sun proximal to the margin of the web between the big toe and the second toe.

Indications: Headache, fainting, infantile convulsions, insomnia, epilepsy, intercostal neuralgia, hypertension, night sweating, urethritis, enuresis.

Liv-3 Taichong

Location: On the dorsum of the foot, in the first intermetatarsal space, 2 t-sun proximal to the margin of the web.

Indications: Headache, fainting, uterine bleeding, disorders of the eye, hypertension, epilepsy.

Liv-5 Ligou

Location: On the medial aspect of the leg, along the posterior border of the tibia, 5 t-sun above the tip of the medial malleolus.

Indications: Impotence, spermatorrhoea, schizophrenia, pelvic cellulitis, urinary retention, pain in the legs.

 

Liv-2 (Xingjian) Liv-3 (Taichong)                      Liv·5 (Ligou).

 

Liv-8 Ququan (Chuchuan)

Liv-8 (Ququan).

Location: On the medial end of the transverse popliteal crease, in front of the semimemberanous muscle behind the lower end of the femur.

Indications: Impotence, spermatorrhoea, poliomyelitis, prolapse of uterus, urethritis, cystitis, endometritis.

 

Liv-14 Qimen (Chi men)

Location: On the front of the chest directly below the nipple on the sixth intercostal space.

Indications: Neuralgia, indigestion, pleurisy, hepatitis, chest pain, heart diseases, lactational disorders, bronchial asthma.

 Liv-14 (Quimen)

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Acupuncture Small Intestine Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description small intestine meridian is a yang channel associated with the element fire and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the heart channel.

Total number of points: 19.

Starting point: Corner of the nail of the little finger.

Terminal point: A point in front of the center of the tragus and temporomandibular joint.

Description of the Selected Points

SI-3 Houxi (Houhsi)

SI-3 Houxi

Location: At the medial end of the main transverse palmar crease, on the ulnar border of the hand proximal to the fifth metacar­pophalangeal joint.

Indications : Cervical spondylosis, stiffness of the neck, torticollis, occipital headache, paralysis of upper extremities, epilepsy, tinnitus aurium and deafness.

SI-6 Yanglao

Location: On the posterior aspect of the wrist in a groove lateral to the ulnar styloid process, proximal to the inferior radio-ulnar joint.

SI-6 Yanglao

Indications:

  • Paralysis of the upper extremity, arthritis of the wrist joint, wrist drop.
  • Cervical spondylosis, stiff neck.
  • Status asthmaticus in association with CV-17 (Shanzhong).

SI-9 Jianzhen (Chienchen)

Location: 1 t-sun above the lower margin of the posterior axillary fold (arm being kept in full adduction).

Indications: Periarthritis of the shoulder joint, paralysis and polyneuro­pathy of the upper extremity.

SI-9 Jianzhen

SI-10 Naoshu

Location: Vertically above SI-9 (Jianzhen) just below the spine of the scapula.

Indications: Periarthritis of shoulder, paralysis of upper extremity, other painful conditions of the shoulder and arm.

SI-10 Naoshu

SI-18 Quanliao (Chuanliao)

Location: Just below the inferior border of the zygomatic bone at a level vertically below the outer canthus of the eye.

SI-18 Quanliao and SI-19 Tinggong

Indications: Trigeminal neuralgia, Bell’s palsy, pain in the upper teeth, spasm of the facial muscles. It is used as an anesthetic point for brain surgery and tooth extraction.

SI-19 Tinggong (Tingkung)

Location: In the depression between the tragus of the ear and temporomandibular joint when the mouth is slightly open.

Indications: Otitis media, tinnitus, deafness, labyrinthitis, Meniere’s disease, motion sickness and arthritis of the temporomandibular joint.

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The Governing Vessels Meridian (The Du Channel)

This meridian is not linked to any organ but it possesses a governing influence on all the yang channels of the body. The word Du means “governor“.

Total number of points: 28.

Starting point: In the perineum in between coccyx and the anus.

Terminal point: Junction of the upper lip and gum.

Pathway: This meridian originates in the pelvic cavity, runs downwards
and emerges externally in between the tip of the coccyx and anus. It then runs exactly in the posterior midline along the spinous processes of. the vertebral column, and then in the midline of the skull to reach vertex. It winds round the scalp and forehead to reach the columella of the nose, descends to frenulum of the upper lip and ends in between the junction of the upper lip and gum. In its course it communicates with the kidney in the lumbar region and brain near vertex.

 Therapeutic Indications

  1.  All the disorders along the pathway of channel.
  2.  Mental and neurological disorders.
  3.  Deaf mutism.
  4.  Anorectal and oral disorders.
  5.  Backache, spondylosis, ankylosing-spondylitis.
  6.  Febrile conditions.
  7.  Debility and other disorders associated with the low body resistance.

Description of the Selected Points

GV-4 Mingmen

Location: In the center of the inter-space between the dorsal spines of second and third lumbar vertebrae.

Indications: Nephritis, pyelitis, renal colic, enuresis, impotence, spermatorrhoea, sciatica, lumbago.

GV-6 Jizhong (Chichung)

Location: In the center of the inter-space between the eleventh and twelfth dorsal spines.

Indications: Epilepsy, jaundice, diarrhoea, prolapse of the anus in children, piles.

GV-14 Dazhui (Tachui)

Location: Midway between the spinous process of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae.

Indications: Infections, fever, heat stroke, bronchitis, asthma, frozen shoulder, severe backache, cervical spondylosis, torticollis, stiff neck, ankylosing spondylitis, epilepsy, headache, migraine, anxiety states.
Many times it is used in place of GV-20 (Baihui) for sedation when the patient in sensitive to that point.

 

       GV-4 (Mingmen). GV-6 (Jizhong)                                        GV-14 (Dezhui)

GV-20 Baihui (Paihui)

Location: On the scalp in the midline, 7 t-sun above the posterior hairline, 5 t-sun behind the anterior hairline, midway on a line connecting the apex of both the auricles (Fig. 7.83).

Indications: Epilepsy, schizophrenia, headache, vertigo, apoplexy, insomnia, neurasthenia, anxiety, Parkinsonism, bronchial asthma, psoriasis, impotence, premature ejaculation, cerebrovascular accidents, loss of memory, alopecia, pruritis ani.

GV-23 Shangxing (Shanghsiang)

Location: 4 t-sun anterior to  GV-20 (Baihui) in the midline.

Indications: Epistaxis, rhinitis, frontal sinusitis, frontal headache, stuffy nose, eye diseases, insomnia.

 

   GV-20 (Baihui), GV-23 (Shangxing)                                  GV-24 (Shentinf).

GV-24 Shenting

Location: 0.5 t-sun inside the anterior natural hair line in the midline.

Indications: Headache, frontal sinusitis, epilepsy, anxiety, insomnia, rhinitis, vertigo.

GV-26 Renzhong (Jenchung)

Location: At the center of the junction of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of the philtrum of the upper lip.

Indications: All the indications of a jing-well point. Shock, heat-stroke, facial paralysis, epilepsy.

 

GV-26 (Renzhong)

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Acupuncture Heart Meridian

According to the traditional Chinese description heart meridian is yin channel associated with the element fire and possesses interior and exterior relationship with the small intestine meridian.

Total number of points: 9.

Starting point: Center of the axilla.

Terminal point: Lateral side of the little finger proximal to the corner of the nail.

Description of Selected Points

Heart Meridian Points

H-5 Tongli (Tungli)

Location: 1 t-sun above the posterior border of the pisiform bone lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris on the ulnar side of the wrist 1 t-sun above H-7 (Shenmen).

Indications: Speech disorders like aphasia, hoarseness of voice, stammering, palpitation, psychosis and other mental disorders, insomnia and painful arm and wrist.

H-6 Yinxi (Yin Hsi)

Location: On the front of the wrist, 0.5 t-sun proximal to the posterior border of the pisiform bone lateral to the tendon of the muscle flexor carpi ulnaris.

Indications: Psychoneurosis, neurasthenia, palpitation, night sweats, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.

H-7 Shenmen

Location: On the inner side of the wrist, just proximal to the pisiform, bone, in a groove lateral to the tendon of muscle flexor carpi ulnaris. (The medial end of the most distal wrist crease on the anterior aspect.)

Indications: Anxiety, insomnia, palpitation, hysteria, mental disorders, frequent dreams, hyperhydrosis, alcohol addiction, schizo­phrenia and epilepsy. It is one of the best tranquilising points.

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